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Staff

Profile picture for user Rik

Rik
van den Bosch

Director
Profile picture for user Godert

Godert
van Lynden

Deputy Director. Land Degradation & Sustainable Land management.
Profile picture for user Yolanda

Yolanda
Karpes

Secretariat
Profile picture for user Zhanguo

Zhanguo
Bai

Senior reseacher / Soil and land degradation assessment and restoration
Profile picture for user Niels

Niels H.
Batjes

Head of WDC-Soils (World Data Centre for Soils)
Profile picture for user Andries

Andries
Bosma

Business Developer
Profile picture for user Eloi

Eloi
Carvalho Ribeiro

Geoinformatics

Jan
de Leeuw

Land Degradation & Sustainable Land management.
Profile picture for user Ingrid

Ingrid
Haas

Webmaster and programmer
Profile picture for user Tom

Tom
Hengl

Soil mapping, predictive soil modelling, SoilGrids
Profile picture for user Gerard

Gerard
Heuvelink

Pedometrics and Digital Soil Mapping
Profile picture for user Bas

Bas
Kempen

Soil mapping specialist
Profile picture for user Johan

Johan
Leenaars

Soil scientist (agropedologist)
Profile picture for user Stephan

Stephan
Mantel

Sustainable land management, Head of World Soil Museum
Profile picture for user Livija Petrovic

L (Livija)
Petrovic

Volunteer, library
Profile picture for user Nelly

Nelly
Roefs

Library
Profile picture for user Maria

María
Ruiperez Gonzalez

Remote Sensing, GIS and Soil mapping
Profile picture for user Fenny

Fenny
van Egmond

Aquisition, Soil sensing
Profile picture for user Jan

Jan
van Kleef

Monolith preparation

Guest researchers

AJM (Ad) van Oostrum, MSc

[2016/10 - present]

Ad has more than 30 years experience in soil, plant and water analysis, and assessment of reliability of laboratory data, including consultancy in laboratory methods and quality management in developing countries.

Ad joined the International Soil Museum in Utrecht in 1974. His main focus was: data quality, documentation, and the development and use of collections.

Ad retired in September 2016 after which he continued as a guest researcher, providing special support to the DATA project.

Ad speaks Dutch, English and German.

Angela Bedard-Haughn, PhD

[04-07/2017]

Angela is a Professor of Soil Science in the College of Agriculture and Bioresources at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. As a guest researcher, Angela is working on the development of a gridded soil map for Saskatchewan, including identification and evaluation of the optimum Digital Soil Mapping technique(s) for the low-relief Canadian prairies. She is also interested in collaborating on development of interoperable soil information systems to facilitate integration among different data repositories, nationally and internationally.

Scientific support is provided by Gerard Heuvelink, Niels Batjes, and Eloi Ribeiro.

Francis Silatsa Tedou, MSc

[01-12/2017]

Francis Silatsa is a Cameroonian PhD student with a MSc in soil science. During his stay at ISRIC he will complete and validate the soil profiles database, and learn and use data analysis techniques for the production of soil information (maps) for the whole of Cameroon at a spatial resolution of 100 m and a depth of 200 cm and for the following soil analytical properties: soil texture (sand, silt, and clay), pHwater, pHKCl, C, N, CEC, Ca, Mg, K, Na and P.

Alessandro Samuel Rosa, MSc

[2014/01 - 2014/12]

Alessandro came to ISRIC as a guest researcher sponsored by the CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil. He was a PhD student at the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; part of his PhD research project at ISRIC was developed under the supervision of Dr. Gerard Heuvelink.

The general objective of his research was to evaluate the main sources of uncertainty in digital soil mapping. 

Andrew M Sila, MSc

[2014/03 - 2014/04]

Andrew came to ISRIC as a Postdoc Researcher from World Agroforesty Centre (ICRAF, Kenya). Andrew extended the soil spectroscopy package and assisted the ISRIC-AfSIS team in developing and documenting a Soil Spectral Reference Library as a part of the GSIF package and providing a well-organized spectral reference library for use by AfSIS for digital mapping purposes.

CC (Cristine) Muggler, Prof

[2011/01 - 2012/01]

Cristine, an Associate Professor at the Soil Science Department of Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (Brazil), worked on the World Soil Museum during her sabbatical at ISRIC.

Contact: http://www.dps.ufv.br/?page_id=447

CJE (Nynke) Schulp, PhD

[2010/04 - 2012/04]

Nynke, an employee of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), worked on a part-time basis as a guest researcher at ISRIC. She contributed to a cooperation project with PBL on ‘Global Modelling of Soil Degradation and the Impact on Ecosystem Services.’

While at ISRIC, she worked mainly with Stephan Mantel.

E (Eliana) de Souza, PhD

[2013/08 - 2015/04]

Eliana first came to ISRIC in 2012 to work on her PhD (Fed. University of Viçosa) on “digital soil mapping” and to acquire experience in producing soil property and class maps with special attention for the Rio Doce Basin, Minas Gerais. Her stay was funded by the Brazilian CAPES foundation.

After having obtained her Doctorate, Eliana returned to ISRIC as a guest researcher (2013-2015) for further research on ‘Pedometric Mapping for Brazil’.

Kevin Vaysse, MSc

[2014/04 - 2014/07]

Kevin is a PhD student from France. He worked on the development of digital soil mapping methods for soil properties to improve soil data at the regional scale.

His advisors while at ISRIC were Gerard Heuvelink and Tom Hengl.

L (Laura) Battle Bayer, MSc

[2009/05 - 2010/04]

Laura, from Spain, an agronomist by training, worked as a Guest Researcher on “soil carbon dynamics”. This included the development and testing of a summary-model of soil organic carbon dynamics focusing on defined land use changes in the Brazilian Cerrado.

An important aim of the ‘scholarship’ was to a write peer-reviewed paper on this subject. In addition to this, several proposals for follow up studies were prepared respectively submitted for possible external funding.

ISRIC provided a stipend, working facilities and scientific support. Niels Batjes acted as her supervisor.

Milan Kilibarda, PhD

[2013/05 - 2013/06]

Milan is a teaching assistant in Cartography, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, University of Belgrade.

As a guest researcher, he worked on Digital Soil Mapping; scientific support was provided by Tom Hengl.

 

 

N (Nikolay) Rybalskiy, MSc

[2011/03 - 2011/08]

Nikolay, a guest researcher from Moscow State University, worked on the development of a SOTER database for a section of Russia. He also contributed to field work in Russia for the SOLEX project.

Scientific support was provided by Vincent van Engelen and Koos Dijkshoorn.

N (Nikoo) Hamzehpour, MSc

[2011/03 - 2011/09]

Nikoo Hamzehpour, a guest researcher from Iran (Tarbiat Modares University), worked on her PhD project "Evaluating spatial variability of soil salinity in Uromieh Plain".

Scientific advise was provided by Tom Hengl.

Paddikal Chandran, PhD

[2011/01 - 2011/03]

Dr Paddikal Chandran came to further his knowledge of soil and terrain databases (SOTER) and to get acquainted with various research institutes in the Netherlands.

During his stay Dr Chandran has developed an updated SOTER database for the Indo Gangetic Plains (IGP), India, building on earlier SOTER-related work for the international GEF-SOC project. Dr Chandran obtained funds for his visit to ISRIC under the World Bank funded National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP); ISRIC provided facilities and scientific support (Koos Dijkshoorn).

Priyabatra Santra, PhD

[2013/09 - 2013/12]

Dr Priyabrata Santra came to ISRIC to learn advanced research areas in geoinformatics. He worked on spatial assessment of soil properties using digital soil mapping techniques. Soil organic carbon content has been assessed by him at six different spatial scales starting from farmer’s field to national scale in India using geostatistical techniques. He also developed a web based GIS for Arid Western India to estimate soil water retention based on pedotransfer function model and digital soil maps.

His visit at ISRIC was funded by world bank funded NAIP project in ICAR, India.

His research work at ISRIC was supported by Gerard Heuvelink and Niels Batjes.

Uttam Kumar Mandal, PhD

[2013/09 - 2013/12]

Dr Uttam Kumar Mandal, a soil scientist by profession, came to ISRIC to get acquainted with advanced applications of Geo-informatics in the field of natural resources management. He learnt geo-statistical soil mapping techniques and developed the soil organic carbon stock map for Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh. He also worked on the digital soil and terrain (SOTER) units for West Bengal state. Further, he assessed spatio-temporal changes in land use land cover of Sundarbans using satellite imagery.

His visit at ISRIC was funded by the World Bank funded NAIP Project under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).

His work at ISRIC was facilitated by Gerard Heuvelink and Niels Batjes.

Wei Shangguan, PhD

[2014/10-2015/10]

Wei came to ISRIC as a guest researcher sponsored by the Chinese Scholarship Council.

Wei is an associate professor at the Beijing Normal University, China, and participated in several ongoing projects, such as Global Soil Information Facilities at ISRIC under the supervision of Dr. Tom Hengl and Dr. Gerard Heuvelink.

Dr Shangguan's research interests includes soil geography and soil physics, focusing on soil mapping.

During his guest research at ISRIC, Wei worked on a mapping the global soil depth and the soils of China.

Students

Kees Baake

Kees Baake

Kees is a Dutch MSc student of Wageningen University who will be working on the evaluation of methods for uncertainty quantification in Digital Soil Mapping (DSM). One particularly promising approach in DSM is the use of Machine Learning. This can automate the construction of soil models by training on soil forming covariates (e.g. remotely sensed data layers). DSM through Machine Learning displays a high potential for soil property prediction, but the quantification of the uncertainties in DSM interpolations remains challenging. The research could provide useful strategies for ISRIC's SoilGrids project.

ME (Marcos) Angelini, Agronomy Eng.

[since 2013]

Marcos is a guest PhD candidate from Argentina. He works for the Soil Institute of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), which grants his studies. His thesis is about integrating information on soil forming processes in digital soil mapping. Scientific support is provided by Gerard Heuvelink.

Marcos' WUR staff profile: https://www.wur.nl/en/Persons/Marcos-E-ME-Marcos-Angelini.htm

Luc Steinbuch, MSc

[since 2014]

I am a Dutch PhD student, working on geostatistics and more specific the use of Bayesian algorithms to increase the reliability of soil maps and landuse maps. Beside ISRIC, this PhD project is also supported by the Soil Geography and Landscape group (Wageningen UR) and by Alterra (Wageningen UR). Supervisors are Gerard Heuvelink and Dick Brus.

Mirjam Breure, MSc

[since 2016]

Mirjam grew up in the west of the Netherlands where her parents own a greenhouse. So food production has always been an important part of her life. She graduated from Wageningen University in Plant Sciences in 2015 and started her PhD in 2016. During this PhD she will do research on the effects of micro nutrient fertilization on crop growth in SSA. This project is supervised by Ellis Hoffland (Soil Quality). Bas Kempen (ISRIC) will assist in the soil mapping that is part of this PhD.

Job de Pater

[2016]

Job was doing his MSc thesis work on the spatial prediction of the availability of zinc for plant uptake. He used a prediction model based on soil data from IFDC, own soil analysis, the QUEFTS model (nutrient uptake + growth) and if possible environmental covariates. Case study was on Sub-Saharan Africa (Rwanda) where zinc deficiency is most pressing. His supervisors were Ellis Hoffland (Soil Quality) and Bas Kempen (ISRIC).

LI (Liesbeth) Wilschut, MSc

[2008]

Liesbeth did her internship on the Green Water Credits program working on the Upper Tana basin project area in Kenya. Scientific support was provided by Sjef Kauffman and David Dent.

R (Rogier) de Jong, MSc

[2009]

Rogier contributed to the Global Assessment of Land Degradation (GLADA) , and worked on his PhD thesis entitled "Analysis of vegetation-activity trends in a global land degradation framework". Scientific support was provided by David Dent and Zhanguo Bai.

Sabastine Ugbaje

[2012]

Sabastine worked on Functional Digital Soil Mapping for the prediction of available water capacity in Nigeria The findings of his MSc study were published in the Vadose Zone Journal. Scientific support was provided by Hannes Reuter.

Siyu Zhang

[2013]

Siyu studied Geo-information Science at Wageningen University. Her MSc-research was on “Digital Soil Mapping for Africa”. She analysed the usefulness of various statistical models to establish the relationship between the dependent variable (soil property) and explanatory variables (environmental covariates). Guidance was provided by Gerard Heuvelink.

Soufiane El Boualaoui

[2014]

Soufiane was targeting international experiences with cutting edge technologies in Water and land management; that’s why choosing the Netherlands and specifically ISRIC, by working on Green Water Credits in Algeria and RECARE project in Europe under the supervision of Godert van Lynden and Thomas Caspari. Soufiane has a background of 5 years in water and environmental engineering and training fields in some arid regions in Morocco that resorted to reverse osmosis desalination and other measures to maintain their agricultural activity and socio-economic stability. Besides, Soufiane speaks Arabic, English, French and he’s determined to learn Dutch.

Susanne Hof

[2014]

Susanne was an MSc student at the Soil Geography and Landscape Group of Wageningen University. She was doing her internship with the Soil Geography team of Alterra and ISRIC. Susanne investigated the benefit of using legacy soil data in addition to contemporary soil data for updating the national soil map of the Netherlands with digital soil mapping. She considered three scenario’s: i) modelling with legacy data only, ii) modelling with contemporary data only, iii) modelling with both legacy and contemporary data. For each scenario the map accuracy was determined from an independent validation dataset. Supervisors were Dick Brus and Bas Kempen.

Thanos Strantzalis

[2014]

Thanos was doing his master thesis research on developing a framework for the generalization of the SoilGrid maps, according to the user's zoom level. He was a master student of Geo-information science at Wageningen University, with special interest in geo-scripting. Guidance and scientific support was provided by Gerard Heuvelink and Sytze de Bruin (GRS department).

Charl Wong

[2013]

Charl worked on developing or applying a current method which includes soil legacy maps into Digital Soil Mapping and then compare how accurate it is with the current Digital Soil Mapping. Charl was supervised by Johan Leenaars, Gerard Heuvelink and Sytze de Bruin (GRS).

Iolanda Simó

[2015]

Iolanda sought assistance from ISRIC staff to help her with the Irish soil attribute maps development, such as pH, soil depth, soil organic carbon. She applied pedometric techniques as used by ISRIC staff (Dr. Gerard Heuvelink, Dr. Bas Kempen and Dr. Tom Hengl), using Irish SIS data to develop the soil attribute maps. She helped to contribute data for the development and validation of ISRIC map production, with 200 profiles from the Irish SIS. During the stay at ISRIC she worked on map production and validation activities.

Olfa Koster, MSc

[2016]

Olaf graduated from Wageningen University in International Land and Water Management and was doing an internship at ISRIC. Working under the ISQAPER project, he was involved in a meta-analysis of the effects of agricultural practices on key soil quality indicators in major pedo-climatic zones across Europe and China. His focus was on three parts: Identify major agricultural management practices (top five) in Europe and China; Search relevant literature on the effects of management practices on soil quality (indicators); Conduct a meta-analysis of the effects of one up to five major management practices on the defined soil quality indicators. Olaf was supervised by Zhanguo Bai and Thomas Caspari.

Former Staff

Below is a list of former ISRIC staff, including the period of time they have been working for the organisation. The list is sorted alphabetically by surname.

  • M (Mateen) Ahmad   [1991 - 2009]
  • Wim Andriessen
  • Drs JHV (Hans) van Baren   [1972 - 1997]  
  • JGR (Ruud) Beemster, Drs   [1988 - ?]
  • KJ (Hans) Berendsen   [1991, 1993 - 2002]
  • PS (Prem) Bindraban, PhD   [2009 - 2013]    Contact: LinkedIn
  • RO (Rob) Bleyert, Ing   [1979 - 1993]
  • JC (Jan) ten Bokkel   [1981 - ?]
  • W (Wout) Bomer   [1966 - 1983]  
  • WCWA (Wout) Bomer   [1979 - 2010]
  • AB (Albert) Bos, Ing   [1984 - 2001]
  • AF (Lex) Bouwman, Ir   [1986 - 1990]
  • E.M. (Mike) Bridges, Dr   [1991-1996]
  • J (Jaques) Brunt, Ir   [1989 - 1995]
  • J (Jan) Brussen   [<1978 -  2008]
  • TM (Thomas) Caspari, Dr [2013 - 2017]
  • BJ (Marie-Be) Clabaut   [1985 - 1995]
  • Drs D (Dick) Creutzberg   [1979 - 1993]  
  • M (Marian) Creutzberg-Sippel   [1994]
  • AJ (Arjan) van Dam, Ir   [1982 - 1983]
  • DL (David) Dent, Dr   [2003 – 2009]
  • CA (Kees) van Diepen, Ir   [1981 - 1984]
  • JA (Koos) Dijkshoorn, Ir   [1995 - 2011]
  • WP (Vincent) van Engelen, Drs   [1988 – 2012]
  • M van Genderen   [2007 - 2009]
  • J (Jan) Gerits   [1988]
  • GJ (Gerda) Giesen-Peters   [1977 - 1980]
  • M (Maryla) de Groot-Sot   [1981, 1994]
  • RTA (Ruud) Hakkeling   [1987 - 1988]
  • AE (Alfred) Hartemink, Dr   [1995, 1999 - 2010]
  • P (Peter) Heilman
  • Hein van Holsteijn   [2013 - 2014]
  • IIM (Ingrid) Huibers-Govaert, Ir   [2006 - 2010]
  • JRM (Jan) Huting   [1974 – 2012]
  • A (Aagje) Jellema   [1977? - 1979]
  • JC (Joke) Jonker-Verbiesen   [1979 - 2002]  
  • JH (Sjef) Kauffman, Ir   [1984 - 2011]
  • Arie van Kekem
  • R (Ruth) Krause   [2009 - 2010]
  • J (Jan) Kuyper   [1985 - 1986]
  • B (Barend) van Lagen   [1982 - 1987]
  • AH (Hiske) Land, Drs   [2011-2013]
  • PC (Priscilla) van Leeuwen   [1978 - 1985]
  • Aagje Legger
  • EE (Emiel) van Loon   [1994 - 1995]
  • RA (Bob) MacMillan, PhD, P.Ag   [2009 - 2011]
  • N (Iraj) Manuchehri   [1990 - 2004]
  • J (Johanna) Martinez Devia, MBA   [2009 - 2011]
  • JS Mendes des Jesus, Dr   [2012-2017]      Contact: GeoCat B.V.
  • CJ de Mooy   [1965 - 1967]
  • PJM (Paul) Mulder, Drs   [1989 -1993]
  • G (Ger) Naber, Ir   [2006 – 2012]
  • J Nijhuis-Möller   [1979 - 1986]
  • LR (Roel) Oldeman, Dr Ir   [1985 - 2002]  
  • AJM (Ad) van Oostrum, MSc   [1974 - 2016]
  • LK (Leendert) Pleysier, Ir   [1985 - 1987]
  • NM (Nadia) Pons-Ghitulescu, Dr   [1983 - 1990]
  • JHM Pulles, Ir   [1988 - 1990]
  • LP (Piet) van Reeuwijk, Dr Ir   [1979 - 2002]
  • H (Hans) Renaud   [1966? - 1979?]
  • JW (Jacqueline) Resink   [1994 - 1997]
  • H (Henk) van Reuler   [1980 - 1984]
  • HI (Hannes) Reuter, Dr   [2009-2013]
  • AC (Sandra) Reyerse   [1980 - 1982]
  • HF de Ridder-Helder   [? -1999]
  • AF (Arjen) Rotmans   [1994 - 1995]
  • Jules Scholten
  • JD (Dick) Schreiber   [<1970]
  • W (Wout) Siderius, Dr   [1973, 1980 – 1982, 1987 -1989]
  • A (Arnaud) de Sitter   [1979 - 1980]
  • RA (Rob) Smaal   [1974 - 2000]
  • WG (Wim) Sombroek, Dr Ir   [1979 - 1991]  
  • OC (Otto) Spaargaren, Dr   [1979 – 2009]  
  • P (Piet) Tempel, Ir   [1993 - 2013]
  • J (Joost) Tersteeg   [1995]
  • BH Thalen   [1996]
  • J (Jan) Verhagen   [1986 - 1987]
  • AW (Adriaan) Vogel   [1993 - 1994]
  • S (Siebe) Vriend   [1997 - 2001]
  • E (Erik) van Waveren, Drs   [1984 - 1986]
  • T (Theo) Weghelaar
  • I (Ineke) Wolters-van Otterloo   [1967 - 1974]

Honorary Fellows

Honorary Fellows are appointed in recognition of mutual long and fruitful relationship with ISRIC - World Soil Information:

  • Dr Wim G. Sombroek (in memoriam First Honorary Fellow    former Director of ISRIC; and outstanding contributions to the Institute by optimising the earned recognition worldwide 
        
  • Professor Dr Rudi Dudal (in memoriam― mastermind of the Soil Map of the World and long-time friend of ISRIC
       
  • Professor Dr Klaas Jan Beek seminal work of  land evaluation and through the trusteeship as Rector of the International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation  
     
  • Dr Robert Brinkman seminal work carrying soil survey through land evaluation to land use planning; and support as Chief of FAO Land Resources 
         
  • Dr Luca Montanarella ― leading soil science in the EU Joint Research Centre; promoting the European Digital Archive of Soil Maps and SOTER; and for carrying soil survey data into policy
        
  • Professor Dr Johan Bouma ― soil physical properties and application of soil survey data; carrying soil information into national and international policy; and for long-time support as member of the ISRIC Board
     
  • Professor Dr Pedro Sanchez ― seminal work on the properties and management of soils of the tropics; and support as Co-Chair of the Hunger Task Force of the UN Millennium Project

  • Dr JA (Seppe )Deckers emeritus professor at the University of Leuven in Belgium.He has a leading role in the field of international soil classification, education of soils and their sustainable management; long time collaboration with ISRIC, especially in the development of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources.
     
  • Dr RA (Bob) MacMillan-Scientific coordinator of the GlobalSoilMap project, helped establish GlobalSoilMap specifications.He is a genuine advocate of Open Soil data and international collaboration and has been instrumental in the development of SoilGrids

SoilMap.jpg
                   Dr Klaas-Jan Beek (left) and Dr Rudi Dudal (right) with the FAO-Unesco Soil Map of the World 
          
at the official opening of new premises for the International Soil Museum, in 1979

International Scientific Advisory Council (ISAC)

The International Scientific Advisory Council of ISRIC-World Soil Information is an advisory body to help set out the overall strategy for ISRIC, and to provide advice about, and actively support actions to implement the strategy.

The specific areas for recommendation and actions concern:

  1. international institutional strategy,
  2. science policy and funding strategy with 3, 5 and 10 year goals, and
  3. support for fund raising opportunities
 

Members of ISAC:

International Scientific Advisory Board (ISAC)

Dr. Luca Montanarella (Chair)

Chair, Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils (ITPS)
Joint Research Centre, European Commission, lspra, Italy

Dr. Andre Bationo

International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), Accra, Ghana

Dr. Neil McKenzie

Chief Research Scientist, CSIRO Agriculture & Food, Canberra, Australia

Dr. Victor M. Castillo

Scientific Affairs Officer, Knowledge Management, Science and Technology Unit,

UN Convention to Combat Desertification, Bonn, Germany

Prof. Diana H. Wall

Director, School of Global Environmental Sustainability
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA

Prof. Dr. Johan Six

Full Professor at the Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

Prof. Dr. Peter de Ruiter

Chairman ISRIC Managing Board, and Director University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Mr. Rik van den Bosch (observer)

Director ISRIC - World Soil Information, Wageningen, The Netherlands

Managing board

The Managing Board of ISRIC currently consists of the following persons:

  • ITJ Grimm MSc, Director Operations, Environmental Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, The Netherlands 
  • Prof. Dr RNJ Comans, Environmental Sciences Group,Soil Chemistry and chemical soil quality Wageningen UR, The Netherlands 
  • Prof. Dr PC de Ruiter, Scientific Manager, Mathematical and Statistical Methods, Plant Sciences, Wageningen UR, The Netherlands (Chair)

board_group.jpg

Group photo of ISRIC Managing Board (March 2017): Prof. Dr PC de Ruiter, ITJ Grimm, Prof. Dr RNJ Comans (from left to right)